Nearly 130,000 face lifts and more than 31,000 brow lifts were performed in the U.S. in 2014, making them one of the most popular cosmetic surgeries among both women and men.  Face lifts and brow lifts are both performed to correct signs of aging, including wrinkles, creases and folds, and loose, lax skin. Injectable procedures including both dermal fillers and neuromuscular agents like Botox® were significantly more popular: About 5.5 million injectable procedures were performed on both women and men during 2014. 
Although face lift procedures to treat the aging face are nothing new, in recent years, the interest in procedures to combat the visible effects of aging has grown significantly as the U.S. population has shifted to an older demographic. Increased demand has translated into more research into novel techniques that are potentially safer and more effective. Because of their ability to support cell renewal and replenishment at the cellular level, stem cells have been the focus of many studies and clinical research efforts.
The primary factors that cause facial aging can be divided into two major groups :
- Extrinsic factors include causes that act on your skin to cause age-related changes, such as sun exposure, air pollution, inadequate nutrition, alcohol abuse and smoking. Facial changes characteristic of extrinsic aging include wrinkles, hyperpgimentation, hypopigmentation and thick, scaly patches called actinic keratoses.
- Intrinsic factors are based on heredity. Facial changes characteristic of intrinsic aging include thinning skin and harsh expression lines.
Additional damage can occur from the production and release of free radicals, but the effects are random and therefore less predictable than extrinsic or intrinsic factors. 
Extrinsic and intrinsic factors and free radicals can all act on the underlying components of skin, including collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid, all of which play critical roles in helping skin stay resilient and maintaining other characteristics associated with young skin.
INDICATIONS LEADING TO FACE LIFT
Many signs of aging in the skin and facial features occur as a result of a loss of the skin’s natural volume and elasticity. In young, healthy skin, collagen and elastin work together to provide an elastic, resilient structure that enables skin to bounce back and appear firm. Hyaluronic acid, a natural sugar, helps skin stay firm by retaining nutrients and water to moisturize and nourish skin. Young skin replenishes collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid at a fast pace. But as the body ages, replacement is less rapid.  The cellular processes that help promote production of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid begin to slow, and skin begins to become thin and inelastic. The cumulative effects of extrinsic factors like UV exposure from the sun and airborne pollutants begin to become evident.
What results is loose, lax skin, fine lines and wrinkles. As the skin loses its ability to hold moisture and natural fatty deposits begin to break down, a loss of volume leads to a “hollowed out” appearance, typically most noticeable in the cheeks.
Facial signs of aging including wrinkles, lines, creases and loose, sagging skin have typically been treated in one of five ways :
- Using invasive surgical approaches (face lift, brow lift, blepharoplasty, etc.) to remove excess skin and fat
- Minimally invasive techniques using injectable fillers or neuromuscular agents such as Botox to temporarily correct wrinkles and lines
- Chemical peels which rely on combinations of chemicals to produce a “controlled injury” that stimulates the production of new skin
- Noninvasive techniques such as laser therapy and radiofrequency treatments to tone and tighten skin and temporarily reduce the appearance of lines and wrinkles
- Topical agents such as retinoids to help decrease the signs associated with photoaging
Although some of these techniques may help stimulate production of natural collagen, the effect on the development of skin tissue components is secondary.